I first heard about 3D/Tri-planar stretching from the Michael Boyle Functional Strength Coach 3.0 video series around 2009. Similarly, Gary Gray completely encompasses the 3D movement paradigm in his functional training programs. I am not entirely sure the full history behind 3D stretching, but I will take tremendous liberty to assume it likely started with Thomas Meyer’s Anatomy Trains. This brilliantly written and illustrated work has provided us one of the most detailed reviews and perspectives of the myofascial connections of the body and their respective lines of pull in static positions and with movement. Taking it back even further, we will see that the work of Herman Kabat with the diagonal patterns of PNF also brought tremendous insight into the spiral-like function of muscular and fascial movement in the human body. In retrospect, many of us could clearly have seen in dissections and even in textbooks evidence of muscle and fascia functioning in three dimensions, but we still needed some smart thinkers to remind us that perhaps we should look at treating the movement restriction in more than one plane of motion from time-to-time.
There are numerous ways to perform 3D stretches throughout the body. Popularized systems including Yoga and Pilates have long since incorporated them and intuitively most of us can figure out a number of ways to stretch muscles in multiple planes on our own. The question is, is it better to address a movement restriction globally (3D stretch), or locally (single plane)? It is vital to note that the value of each of these stretches depends on the individual and their specific movement limitations. To be honest, I still find single plane stretches to be the most effective use of time in most cases, in particular when it comes to addressing specific restrictions. In fact, I generally limit the use of 3D stretches to the upper extremity and the hamstrings because I can often times address both a local restriction and global restrictions very effectively in these areas with a single stretch. For the purpose of this post and for this video I am only going to speak of 3D stretching through the hamstrings.
3D/Tri-planar Stretching – Hamstring Emphasized
The attachment of the biceps femoris to the sacrotuberous ligament and the fascial attachments of the erector spinae provides a fairly common restricted line of pull for most individuals. It is very easy to feel the tension throughout this chain/train and it is easy to self-manage. Plus, as I mentioned earlier, I can emphasize a local restriction by passively holding the hamstrings in a lengthened position in a sagital plane and gradually incorporate lengthening of the rest of the fascial chain as needed. From the perspective of Anatomy Trains, with the hamstrings (specifically the biceps femoris) fascial attachment to the sacrum we can take advantage of the Superficial Back Line, the Spiral Line, and the Back Functional Line to lengthen numerous fascial restrictions. From a PNF philosophy, we are lengthening through D1 and D2 hip extension and increasing ROM into D1 & D2 hip flexion.
That’s enough writing, here is a video of me demonstrating and discussing some options for 3D/Tri-planar hamstring stretching.