Biopsychosocial Role of Manual Therapy – Moving beyond Symptom Modification

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“An important role of human body is to protect itself, in particular the health of the nervous system, a somewhat important system that sustains conscious human existence, which has physical, cognitive, and emotional layers attached to it. It is likely not helpful to label these protective behaviors as bad or good, but to recognize in some circumstances that these protective behaviors may begin to limit function. Often, movement and physical behaviors of the body are perceived as part of the musculoskeletal system alone, however cognitive and emotional states, which are intricately bound to social/cultural demands and expectations, also influence body behaviors, including postural and ideomotor tendencies that could manifest as protective strategies of the human body. Some of these protective behaviors may limit movement and movement variability and this could be sensitizing to the peripheral nervous system because nerves might not be experiencing adequate blood/movement/space, chemical irritation might not be dispersed quickly enough, and/or they could be undergoing possible noxious mechanical deformation. While the goal should always be to have the client independently explore variability and quality of movement, sometimes they simply can’t find the area of their body to move, have poor sensorimotor awareness and coordination, and generally have difficulty creating movement variability without some guided tactile input from another person. There is notable evidence in research that somatosensory neuroplastic reorganization is constant and that certain areas of the body are poorly mapped, such as the back/pelvis/hip. Furthermore, a sense of self is more than simply “where are the body parts”, how humans see themselves internally via interoception has been recognized as an important component of their behavioral and emotional states. Lack of movement, movement invariability, and pain experienced with movement may result in changes of these body maps that make sensorimotor awareness and coordination challenging. Tactile input and tactile cues do not necessarily need to be considered “manual therapy”, however, many traditionally taught manual therapy techniques can easily be “re-framed” in ways that could help someone to better “get to know their own body and behaviors”, including influencing somatosensory mapping and sensorimotor behavior through various forms for clinician “manual” input. I would argue that in our continued efforts to improve on the application of a biopsychosocial framework, we move beyond using manual therapy simply for “symptom modification”, but rather helping a person to better understand their body and the behaviors it exhibits, not only in the clinical setting, but in broader biopsychosocial contexts. “ – Leonard Van Gelder